Dynamic PFC in wind power plants
EPCOS portfolio features all key components for dynamic power factor correction (PFC) systems. Wind power plants, in particular, stand to profit from the application of such systems, which feature fast reaction times and minimum maintenance requirements.
Conventional PFC systems consist of a controller to regulate the power factor, capacitors, capacitor contactors, fuses and a switching cabinet, in which all these components are assembled. The integration of reactors is also standard for such systems if there are harmonics.
In these conventional systems, the reset time of the capacitors is at least 60 seconds due to the necessary discharge processes according to IEC 60831. The relatively slow switching of the mechanical relays commonly used in standard PFC controllers also fails to satisfy the requirements of fast-changing loads that demand a reaction in the millisecond range. The same applies to the electromechanical capacitor contactors, since they are not designed for switching processes in the millisecond range.
Even when special capacitor contactors are used, the capacitor is limited to about 5000 switching operations per year (one switching operation about every 105 minutes). At approximately 100,000 switching operations the lifetime of the contactor is possibly to low. Moreover, Fig. 1 shows that when standard contactors are used, the inrush currents are more than 150 times greater than the rated capacitor currents, which leads to considerable stress on the capacitor and consequently shortens its operating life. Even when recommended capacitor contactors with integrated charging resistors are used, inrush currents of up to 15 times the rated capacitor currents can occur.
|FIGURE 1: INRUSH CURRENT AT THE CAPACITOR|
A suitable fast controller with transistor outputs is needed to implement a dynamic PFC system, with the thyristor as the key component. In combination with the controller, thyristor modules operate with reaction times of less than 20 ms all the way down to 5 ms. These short reaction times are indispensable for compensating fast load changes. But thyristors also switch at the zero crossing of the current, thus avoiding the high currents and high stressing of the capacitors. Fig. 2 shows the oscilloscope image of the switching behavior of the TSM-HV50 thyristor module. In the TSM series, this switching at the zero crossing of the current is achieved by keeping the capacitors at the maximum supply voltage after turn-off. When the trigger signal for the switching process is generated, the thyristor does not switch until the supply voltage reaches this maximum, in order to switch the capacitor at the same voltage level.
|FIGURE 2: SWITCHING CAPACITORS ON VIA THYRISTORS|
Modl, an electrical engineering company based in southern Germany (www.modl.de), has combined EPCOS components such as PFC controllers, thyristor switches and capacitors in the DynaWind 6000 system, which is designed specifically for wind power plants (Fig. 3). This PFC system is used in a wind turbine of the AN BONUS-AN68-1.3 MW type. Its key data:
- 690 V/50 Hz on the low voltage side
- 21 kV/50 Hz at the intermediate voltage level
- 110 kV/50 Hz for the high voltage network
The PFC system employed here makes an overall electric power of 400 kvar available, which is graduated in eight steps each of 50 kvar. The system is programmed so that the power factor is between 0.98 and 1, if possible. Semiconductor-based fuses are used to protect the system. Six vents on the roof of the switching cabinet as well as correspondingly large air-inlet slits with filters on the underside of the doors are used to cool the cabinet. No reactors were integrated in this first step.
|FIGURE 3: DYNAWIND 6000 IN USE|
The controller sends fast trigger signals to the thyristor switch and is equipped with an RS232 interface that allows a remote control and remote data readout.
Fig. 4 shows the measured power factor cos φ before and after turn-on of the dynamic PFC system in the model installation at the Oelerse Wind Park near Hanover. Whereas the power factor was previously in the 0.2 to 0.4 range, it subsequently improved to between 0.8 and 1.0.
|FIGURE 4: POWER FACTOR COMPARISON|
The measured power factor fell below 0.98 on several occasions for two reasons: First, the smallest step width of 50 kvar did not always allow it to be fine-tuned. Because over-correction must be avoided, the attained power factor sometimes falls short of the specified target. Second, it also became evident that the installed correction power is under-dimensioned for the generator running under full load, even though the original installation was dimensioned for 400 kvar. No complete correction of the installation was consequently possible at full load. However, the full-load state occurred very rarely during the measurements.
Fig. 5 shows the reactive power occurring on the grid side. At the beginning and end of the measurement, the reactive power was in the range of -350 kvar with deactivated PFC. In this case, the negative sign indicates inductive reactive power. By switching on the PFC system, the reactive power dropped immediately to considerably lower values. It was already evident from the power factor measurement that the reactive power did not remain at a constant value of zero for the reasons already mentioned. The DynaWind 6000 system’s rapid reactions to load changes can be clearly seen in the measurement.
|FIGURE 5: REACTIVE POWER ON THE GRID SIDE|
Fast thyristor modules
EPCOS capacitors are specified for a maximum of 5000 switching processes per year if contactors are used. This number corresponds approximately to eight switching operations within the duration of 14 hours shown in the diagram (Fig. 5). It is readily apparent that wind powered installations require a considerably larger number of switching operations. In practice, up to 150,000 such operations per year are reached and the risk of the capacitors or electromechanical contactors failing with the associated consequences cannot be ignored. The thyristor switch solves this problem by switching the capacitors without stress. It thus enables not only fast switching, but also a nearly unlimited number of switching operations.
Cooling the installations is also of great importance. The electronic components employed such as the thyristors and cpaacitors, generate heat losses. Moreover, high temperatures occur inside the wind power turbines because of the exposition to direct sunlight. Especially in summer, mean values can reach more than 40°C and peak values in excess of 60°C in such systems. Standard MKK and MKP capacitors are defined in the highest temperature class for capacitors according to IEC 60831, -40/D, and are consequently designed for a mean continuous temperature of 35 °C. If these temperature limits are exceeded, their operating life is significantly shortened. As a rule of thumb, the life expectancy of a capacitor drops by a factor of 0.5 for every 7 K rise in temperature.
This problem can be solved by optimizing the cooling system or by using a different type of capacitor designed for higher operating temperatures, such as the MKV capacitors from EPCOS with a permissible continuous operating temperature of 45 °C or 70 °C for short intervals. Moroever, they also have a higher pulse strength of up to 300 times the rated current, allowing them to handle higher inrush current stresses than MKK or MKP capacitors. Thanks to these properties, MKV capacitors from EPCOS are also particularly well suited for conventional PFC systems with no protective switch-on via thyristors.
All capacitors types described are self-healing, i.e., in the event of a dielectric breakdown, the metalization vaporizes at the damage point so that no permanent short circuit occurs. In addition, they all have an internal overpressure fuse that triggers when the capacitor nears the end of its operating life and impermissibly high pressure builds up inside.
EPCOS offers all the key components for dynamic, conventional and static PFC systems.